NATR 158 - Fish Nutrition


Term: Spring Semester, 1998

Credits: 2 Lec: 1 Lab: 2

Professor : William Snyder



Introduction to the nutritional requirements of fishes with an emphasis on fish growth, nutritional deficiencies, feed formulation and the development of nutritional studies.


Nutritional Requirements of Fish, Committee on Animal Nutrition, NRC
Fish Hatchery Management, Piper et al.
Biology of Fish, Bond
Trout Feeds and Feeding, Phillips
Trainging Manual for Warm-Water Fish Culture, Snow et al.

USFWS Condition Factor Tables
NATR 252 Ichthyology Supplemental Materials Book
NATR 150 Aquaculture Reference Notebook


Fisheries Techniques, Nielsen & Johnson
Methods for Fish Biology, Schreck & Moyle
Principles of Fisheries Science, Everhart & Youngs
Methods for the Assessment of Fish Production in Freshwater, Bagenal


Upon completion of this course, the student will be able to:

1. describe the history and requirements of fish nutrition science;
2. discuss and prioritize the relative merits of natural and artificial feeding regimens in relation to the species cultured and the type of cultural facility;
3. cite the basic nutritional requirements of fish;
4. calculate daily feeding rations using Haskell's formula;
5. calculate the hatchery constant (HC) for a given cultural situation;
6. calculate a monthly feeding schedule based on monthly gain and percent gain;
7. calculate long-term feed needs in terms of size and poundage required;
8. calculate appropriate feed-size relative to fish size and the dates of feed switch-over;
9. interpret a feed bag label relative to the species, life stage, and nutritional requirements of fish;
10. conduct a stomach content analysis on a given fish specimen;
11. discuss the importance of ration history, food destiny equation, and compensatory growth and feeding;
12. project the cost of a given feed schedule and the net value of a fish stock;
13. select and critique articles from refereed journals, on assigned topics;
14. select a research topic and develop an accurate and reasonable thesis statement on that topic; and
15. conduct a literature search on a designated topic, utilizing valid, scientific reference materials, and then communicate those findings in both written and oral forms.



dissecting kit; scientific calculator, notebook and texts; appropriate dress for scheduled laboratory operations


Week 1 Lec: Introduction to Course; History of Aquaculture & Feeding, History of the Ration, Influencing Factors
1/27/98 Lab: Calculation of Conversion Rates, Daily Rations, and Date of First Feeding

Week 2 Lec: Feeding Ecology & Behaviors; Benefit/Cost Ratios; Costs of Feeding
2/3/98 Lab: Fish Anatomy: Adaptions to the Feeding Niche; Dissection: Brook Trout

Week 3 Lec: Ecology of Growth; Fish Condition
2/10/98 Lab: Fish Anatomy: Basic Digestion; Dissection: Tilapia

Week 4 Lec: Food Destiny Equation
2/17/98 Lab: Fish Anatomy: Dissection: Lamprey

Week 5 Lec: Nutritional Energetics
2/24/98 Lab: Fish Anatomy: Dissection: Dogfish

3/3/98 Lab: Calculation of Total Gain, Monthly Gain, and Monthly Rations

Week 7 Lec: Basic Nutritional Elements: Proteins
3/10/98 Lab: Computer Modelling: Stella

Week 8 Lec: Basic Nutritional Elements: Energy Sources: Fats & Carbohydrates
3/24/98 Lab: Computer Modelling: Stella

Week 9 Lec: Basic Nutritional Elements: Vitamins, Minerals, &Water
3/31/98 Lab: Computer Modelling: Stella

Week 10 Lec: Non-Nutritive & Anti-Nutritive Feed Components
4/7/98 Lab: Analysis of Feed Labels

4/14/98 Lab: Calculation of Dates of First Feeding, Feed Sizes & Switch Over, and Long-term Ration

Week 12 Lec: Feed Stuff Management
4/21/98 Lab: Feed Formulation & Preparation; Pearson's Square

Week 13 Lec: Site Visit: Tunison Lab
4/28/98 Lab: Site Visit: Tunison Lab

Week 14 Lec: Natural Feeding & Fertilization
5/5/98 Lab: Stomach Content Analysis

Week 15 Lec: Feeding Practices



Evaluation is a shared responsibility between the teacher and the student. The purpose of the evaluation is to demonstrate how well the professor has taught and the student has learned specific course materials, the principles, concepts and terms relevant to the aquaculture and aquatic science field, and to determine the students' ability to apply that knowledge to specific situations.

STUDENT BEHAVIOR: As students in technical program preparing for a professional career, all students are expected to conduct themselves, in both manner and dress, as professionals.

Eating, drinking, or the consumption of any tobacco products is prohibited in the classroom situation (lecture hall, classroom, or in-field). Doing so may result in the student's dismissal from that class period and will count as an unexcused absence.

GRADE METHOD: The student is required to develop and maintain a Fish Nutrition Reference Notebook as per the criteria distributed by the professor. This notebook will include all lecture and laboratory class notes, all handouts and reference materials distributed by the professor, and any other relevant materials collected by the student. The notebook is worth fifteen percent (15%) of the total course score.

A research effort will be required of the student. This effort will consist of a library-based, literature-review. The effort will result in the student producing a written research report, an annotated bibliography, and an oral presentation. The report must meet the criteria established by the professor. This research effort will be worth forty percent (40%) of the total course score.

All items are due at the beginning of the lecture period on the dates noted in the Syllabus. ALL DEADLINES ARE ABSOLUTE; THERE WILL BE NO GRACE PERIODS GRANTED. Software and hardware failures are not considered to be valid excuses. Plan ahead.

Two midterm exams and one final lecture exam will be given during the lecture period. These may include objective questions (true-false, multiple choice, and matching) as well as subjective questions (essay & calculation). The midterm exams will be unit tests, whereas the final exam will be comprehensive. Each exam will be worth fifteen percent (15%) of the total course score.

The breakdown of test-weight is as follows:



 Midterm exam I


 Midterm exam II


 Lecture final


 Research effort




NOTE: All assignments must be completed and submitted to the professor for grading in order to achieve a passing grade; however, the qualitative assessment of an assignment by the instructor may result in course failure in spite of completion.



 100 - 94% = A  93 - 90% = A-
 89 - 87% = B+  86 - 83% = B  82 - 80% = B-
 79 - 77% = C+  76 - 73% = C 72 - 70% = C-
 69 - 65% = D+  64 - 60% = D
 Below 60% = F

ATTENDANCE: Students are required to attend scheduled lectures, labs, and field trips; and to work on class and field assignments as scheduled by the professor. Students are required to attend their scheduled sections for labs, lectures, and examinations, unless authorized by the professor. Since class sessions start on the hour, students are expected to be punctual. There will be no late entries once a class has begun. The student's absence will be counted as unexcused and will receive a zero for any assignments due.

If a student must leave class early during a regularly scheduled meeting, he/she must discuss reasons with the professor. If a student must miss a scheduled class meeting due to an acceptable, verifiable time conflict, he/she must resolve the time conflict prior to class.

If a student is unable to attend class because of an emergency, the professor or School of Agriculture and Natural Resources office must be contacted prior to the scheduled class meeting. The telephone number is 684-6237 (Mr. Snyder) or 684-6083 (School office). The use of e-mail is recommended (SnyderW).

Students failing to call ahead or discuss absences prior to the class will be unexcused. If a student accumulates four unexcused absences, he/she will be given the option of dropping the course or receiving a failing grade for the quarter.

HONESTY POLICY & DISCIPLINE (Due Process): Honesty and integrity are major elements in professional behavior and are expected of each student. Cheating is considered unacceptable behavior within all University courses. Students having academic problems should consult with their advisor or a college counselor. Instances of cheating will be dealt with in accordance to University policy. Standards of academic honesty and due process procedures for Morrisville College are located in the Rules, Regulations & Expectations.

SAFETY GUIDELINES: Certain class assignments will require the student to be absent from the professor's immediate supervision. Whether the student is under immediate supervision or not, safe conduct and safe use of equipment shall be the ultimate rule. Failure to comply with prudent safety practice and/or willful disregard for class participants and/or equipment may be cause for immediate dismissal from that particular class session by the professor. Subsequent similar activity may be cause for dismissal from the course by the School Dean.

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